This observation by the study report on the topic, accomplished by the Africans in America News Watch, a New York primarily based non-profit organization, in August 2010, sums up the challenge:

“There are quite a few genuine crude oil sellers in Nigeria but the dilemma is acquiring the genuine and verifiable ones. Crude Oil trade is a booming and thriving company and quite a few folks appear to want to go into it. Purchasers from other nations make contact with sellers in Nigeria in order to obtain Nigerian Crude Oil. [But the business is now full of]… scammers on the prowl.” It adds that “There are lots of crude oil sellers in Nigeria, but the challenge there is the potential to come across genuine and verifiable sellers.”

In point of truth, as this author has amply documented elsewhere in an additional study, the assertion that in the arcane globe of international crude oil obtaining and promoting currently the landscape is actually littered and crawling with fraudsters and scammers, is now a nicely-established, nicely-settled truth about which there can hardly be any critical argument or disputation in the modern international oil obtaining and promoting business.

In consequence, offered that stark REALITY that “there are quite a few genuine crude oil sellers in Nigeria but the dilemma is acquiring the genuine and verifiable ones,” the massive million dollar query is this: AS A CRUDE Purchaser, HOW THEN DO YOU GET These SELLERS FROM Amongst THE Entire LOT WHO ARE THE “Genuine AND VERIFIABLE” ONES?

THE Important? Most authorities, in the case of Nigeria, say that essentially you (the crude purchaser) would have to demand and insist on the purported Seller displaying you Genuine documentation and other proofs of obtaining genuine BLCO and FLCO allocation from the Nigerian NNPC, as nicely as proof that that item is nevertheless at the moment availability. (For Nigeria, the NNPC, which stands for the Nigeria National Petroleum Corporation, is a Federal government-owned enterprise that administers the obtaining and promoting of petroleum, which includes providing allocation to genuine sellers of the crude oil in Nigeria).

THE Important DOCUMENTS IN NIGERIAN CRUDE OIL Getting/Promoting Business

There are some crucial documents that are critical in the buying of the Nigerian crude oil transactions. They will incorporate the following documents, amongst other people:

– Seller’s shipping documents, such as: Clean Ocean Bill of Lading Seller’s Industrial Invoice – Seller’s Proof of Item (will comprise the License to Export & the Approval to Export, issued by the country’s government, statement of Availability of the Item, Port Storage Agreement, and so forth) – SGS/Sayboat Certificate of Quantity and High quality issued at the loading port – Certificate of Origin issued by the NNPC – Certificate of Authenticity issued by the NNPC – Charter Celebration Agreement on the vessel, issued to the charterer of the vessel and presumably displaying that the vessel is in fact chartered in the designated Seller’s name – the Q88 questionnaire, filled out by the managers of the vessel delivering the relevant information and facts and specs of the vessel – And so on.


Likely the most essential document of all that a crude purchaser may possibly want to see from the seller, is the suitable Proof of Item (POP). This document, which has to be a single issued by the proper division of the NNPC in Abuja, Nigeria, serves as a clear indication to a crude purchaser that the owner of the oil commodity has correct possession of the item, and also serves as an indication that, at least as at the time of the transaction (but only at that time), the seller has the commodity out there for sale.

Essential: It should really not just be any kind of POP, even so. It desires to be a single that is in a format that will allow satisfactory verification to ascertain that it is valid and genuine. Primarily based on this writer’s study, to make certain the optimum likelihood that this target can be attained, there are essentially two forms of POP documents that are acceptable, and none other people, and only sellers whose POP documents meet these “preferred” POP documents requirements, ought to be entertained or attended to.


A). It ought to have the Loaded vessel documents that are Existing (that is, ought to not be a lot more than two days old, otherwise the document will quickly be rejected as it may possibly imply that the vessel is no longer out there), and should really incorporate the following documents:

i. A Existing Authority to Board (ATB). Seller ought to supply, for the buyer’s inspection, the ATB that was especially issued to the initial purchaser (consignee) of the crude in whose name the vessel was issued. The name on the ATB ought to match precisely with the name on the POP and other documents named right here. And, right here once again, the ATB Need to be Existing – that is, it ought to be no a lot more than two days old. (An ATB that is a lot more than two days old, should really be automatically be viewed as representing a vessel which is no longer out there and therefore not acceptable).

ii. Certificate of high quality. iii. Certificate of origin iv. Cargo manifest v. Vessel ullage report vi. Certificate of quantity. vii. Bill of lading viii. ATS (Authority to Sell) from the NNPC


Frequently, the Purchaser may possibly demand (and therefore the Seller ought to be prepared and prepared to release them), vessel particulars such as the following: the name of the vessel, place of the vessel, the IMO name, get in touch with sign and other vessel particulars. The cause this is needed is so the purchaser can do the tracking of the mentioned loaded vessel, and to ascertain its present availability.


As in the case of the POP which trustworthy buyers’ facilitating outfits like the Dependable Dealings International demand from any AWR seller prior to they can start to do company with them, the other points that may possibly usually be needed from a seller, would incorporate the following:

= the Lifting Lease/License from the NNPC, and

= the Letter of Authority to Sell (ATS) from the NNPC. The Letter of Authority to Sell, also known as a Letter of Allocation, which should really ordinarily come from the NNPC’s Crude Oil Promoting Division, is essentially the official document which shows the purchaser that the seller in fact has the authority from the official government agency for the crude item that he’s promoting. (Need to ordinarily be in a paper format and on NNPC enterprise letterhead ought to include the date of challenge and expiration date, and be signed. Scanned copies of document are alright. All documents ought to be certified, valid, genuine and verifiable.)

= If, for instance, the seller claims that the cargo has been cleared, then he should really ordinarily be in a position to supply the CPA (Charter Celebration Agreement), the ATL (Authority To Load), and Q88 vessel particulars.


OK, so let’s say you have assembled the suitable Proof of Item and the other necessary documents such as these that are outlined above. There is a single crucial, in deed crucial, query that nevertheless remains for you – how do you assure that these documents you have gotten from the seller are even any fantastic? That they are genuine, valid, Genuine and GENUINE to warrant your taking the Seller’s provide seriously?

This query is, possibly, usually the most crucial for a purchaser for the reason that, as a rule, most fraudsters and con artists who operate in the Nigerian crude oil business, are basically masterful forgers and copiers of just about every bit of the genuine business documents that are applied in promoting and obtaining operations by refineries and government agencies, and who are hugely skilled at the craft. Consequently, purchasers are strictly wary in no way, ever to accept outright at face worth or be ever fooled by, any document submitted by sellers or claims created by them, even so seemingly convincing or genuine-searching!. And what it all suggests, is that a single critical facility that a crude oil purchaser and his aides ought to promptly create and have, are some fantastic, fool-proof, tools or capabilities by which they can INDEPENDENTLY Confirm the authenticity of at least the crucial, most important pieces of documents from amongst the tons of documents that sellers and their agents will usually present them in the course of hawking their solutions. And, above all, that they ought to have the capabilities and the expertise and company sophistication to be in a position to detect which ones amongst such documents are genuine and genuine, and which ones may well be plain bogus.

To be confident, generating such verification and confirmation may possibly usually be problematic for a purchaser. Even so, it is not definitely that complicated a job, at least for the schooled and seasoned eyes. You only want to know what and what to appear for, the appropriate queries to ask, and how to counter verify and cross verify details and information and facts. And, in any case, anytime in critical doubt about the authenticity of a document, you should really usually take the path of caution – ask for a lot more proof, or even reject the provide, based on the certain details at challenge in an provide.